13
Al

26.982
Aluminium sample under analysis
 
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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
1.8 - 5.7 % /
4 – 18%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
396.14 /
not applicable
Solid
7 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
396.152 /
0th order line
Solid
90 ppm /
Typically <10%
Low-ash lignite
Commercial LIBS instrument. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), multiple 0.2 m spectrometers and gated, non-intesified CCD array detectors. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si.
B.L. Chadwick and D. Body. Development and commercial evaluation of laser-induced breakdown  spectroscopy chemical  analysis  technology in  the coal  power generation industry. Appl. Spectrosc.,  56, (2002), 70-74.
Not reported
Solid
LOD not reported /
3- 4%
Ore
Using TRACERTM 2100 instrument, Nd:YAG 1064 nm, 195 mJ pulse energy, 10 Hz PRF, <7 ns pulse width. Czerny-Turner spectrograph, 0.2 nm resolution, ICCD detector. Investigation of ore containing P, Al, Mg, Ca, Si. S. Rosenwasser, G. Asimellis, B. Bromley, R. Hazlett, J. Martin, T. Pearce and A. Zigler. Development of a method for automated quantitative analysis of ores using LIBS. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 707-714.
306.69 /
not applicable
Solid
18 ppm, 3 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
394.403 /
C (247.857)
Solid
2 ppm /
4 – 8%
Starch-based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 16, (2001), 622-627.
396.153 /
not applicable
Solid
60 ppm /
RSD not reported
Lignite
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si. Baseline subtracted peak area used.
F.J. Wallis, B.L. Chadwick and R.J.S. Morrison. Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1231-1235.
309.27 & 309.29 /
not applicable
Solid
200 ppm /
10%
UO2 
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
396.1527 /
not applicable
Solid
1 ppm /
8 – 15%
Plant material
Powdered leaf samples fixed on tape. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), 0.5m spectrograph & ICCD detector. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma Spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
308.2
Solid
9 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
309.27 /
Zn (307.59)
Solid
16 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
308.22 /
Zn (307.59)
Solid
54 ppm, 30 ppm /
RSD not stated
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa.
Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49,(1995), 1067-1072.
396.1 /
not applicable
Solid
130 ppm /
2 – 25%
Al2O3 in Fe ore
Excimer laser (λ not stated). Si, Al, Ca, Ti, Mg.
K. Grant, G.L. Paul and J.A. O'Neill. Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 45, (1991),  701-705.
396.15 /
Fe (389.56)
Liquid
43 mg/l (21 pg) /
RSD not stated
Water
Microdroplets generated by electrospray ionisation needle. Nd:YAG Laser (532, 355 & 266 nm). Na, K, Al. PMT detector.
J.-S. Huang, C.-B. Ke, L.S. Huang and K.C. Lin. The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  57, (2002),  35-48.
396.2 /
not reported
Liquid
Undetermined

Fe ore slurry

Laser type not stated, ablation energy 140 mJ per pulse, 2 Hz PRF, focussed by a 50 cm focal length lens. Correlation curves obtained for intensity ratio vs chemical analysis of sample.

L. Barrette and S. Turmel. On-line iron-ore slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 715-723.

396.15 /
Fe (393.00)
Liquid
1 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water ice
TEA-CO2 laser (9 – 11 µm) & Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Al, Na. MCA with IPDA detector.
J.O. Caceres, J.T. Lopez, H.H. Telle and A.G. Urena. Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 831-838.
Not reported /
background ref. signal
Liquid
18 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39 (2000) 2248-2262.
396.15 / Hγ
Liquid
0.01 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999),  1226-1236.
394.4 &
396.15 /
not applicable
Liquid
5.2 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water
Isolated droplet sample introduction system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Al. PMT detector.
H.A. Archontaki and S.R. Crouch.  Evaluation  of an  isolated droplet  sample
introduction system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 42, (1988), 741-746.
396.15
Liquid
20 ppm /
4 – 8%
Water,
Organic solvents
RSS (single pulse) & RSP (double pulse). Plasma formed within the liquid. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al. PMT detector.
D.A. Cremers, L.J. Radziemski and T.R. Loree. Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark. Appl. Spectrosc,. 38, (1984), 721-729.
396.15 /
not applicable