56
Ba

137.327
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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
30 – 170 ppm /
20 – 27%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
455.39 /
not applicable
Solid
3.3 ppm /
RSD not reported
Antarctic marine sediments
Theoretical model applied to experimental data, Nd:YAG laser (355 nm), 7-mirror articulated arm, ICCD detector, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn.
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
553.55 /
not applicable
Solid
3 ppm,
21 ppm/
2.9, 5.5%
Synthetic silicate
 

Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements. Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.

A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 331-340.
455.40 /
not reported
Solid
100 ppm /
10%
PuO2 
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
455.4042 /
not applicable
Solid
600 ppm /
10%
UO2 
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
455.4042 /
not applicable
Solid
10-100 ppm /
RSD not reported
Soil

Excimer laser, wavelength 308 nm, energy 100 mJ, PRF 10 Hz. Spectrograph, 250 mm, 1200 line/mm. Detector, EG&G OMA. Ba, Ti, V and Zn.

R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni, A. Palucci, H.J.L. van der Steen and M. Angelone. Semi-quantitative time resolved LIBS measurements. Appl. Phys. B, 65, (1997), 101-107.

455.404 /
Na (588.569)
Ca (422.673)
Solid
76 ppm /
2 - 3%
Sand
Ground & compacted samples. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). 0.5m spectrograph & IPDA. 580 Torr air atmosphere. Ba, Pb.
A.S. Eppler, D.A. Cremers, D.D. Hickmott and A.C. Koskelo. Matrix effects in
the detection of Pb and Ba in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1175-1181.
233.5 / C
(247.8) & Si
(243.5)
Solid
265 ppm /
12% (ave.)
Soil
Mixed & compacted samples. Portable Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), passive QS. 0.3m spectrograph & IPDA. Ba, Be, Pb & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy instrument. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 222-233.
455.4 / Fe
(404.6)
Solid
42ppm /
2 - 3%
Soil
Ground & compacted samples. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). 0.5m spectrograph & IPDA. 580 Torr air atmosphere. Ba, Pb.
A.S. Eppler, D.A. Cremers, D.D. Hickmott and A.C. Koskelo. Matrix effects in
the detection of Pb and Ba in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1175-1181.
233.5 / C
(247.8) & Si
(243.5)
Solid
180 ppm,
99 ppm /
RSD not reported
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa.
Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 1067-1072.
553.5 /
not applicable
Solid
296 ppm /
9%
Soil
Pressed soil samples. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). (i) 0.3m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
455.40 /
not applicable
Surface
3.1-5.6 pg
(4.4 - 8 ng/cm2)
/ 20 - 25%
Particles on Al
Solid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). (i) 0.3m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
455.40 /
not applicable
Surface
13 pg (18 ng/cm2)
/ 20 - 25%
Liquid on Al
Liquid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). (i) 0.3m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
455.40 /
not applicable
Surface
180 ng/mm2 /
RSD not reported
Solution on Al
Dried spots of different concentration solutions. Nd:YAG (1064nm) laser, Czerny-Turner spectrograph with ICCD. Create a ‘microline’ spark (via  cylindrical lens), allowing 2D analysis. Ba, Mo, Sr, Ti
K.T. Rodolfa and D.A. Cremers. Capabilities of surface composition analysis using a long laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spark. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 367-375.
413.1 /
Al (396.2)
Liquid
12 ppm,
66 ppm / RSD
not reported
Ice / 10% soil
Samples formed by mixing soils with deionised water and then freezing. 7Torr CO2 atmosphere. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). Long range measurements (4 & 6.5m), echellette spectrograph & ICCD or 0.25m grating spectrograph with ICCD. Ba, Li, Mn, Sr, Ti.
Z.A. Arp, D.A. Cremers, R.C. Wiens, D.M. Wayne, B. Sallé and S. Maurice. Analysis of water ice and water/ice soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 897-909.
455.5 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.13 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
493.4 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.007 ppm / RSD
not reported
Water
ArF laser (193nm), efficient plasma formation due to resonant absorption in water. 0.5m spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Na & Pb.
K.M. Lo and N.H. Cheung. ArF laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for part-per-billion analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 682-688.
455.4 /
not applicable
Liquid
4.9 ppm / RSD
not reported
Water
Metal ions dissolved in ultra-pure water. Nd:YAG laser (532nm). 0.275m Czerny-Turner spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Eu & Pb.
T. Bundschuh, J.I. Yun and R. Knopp. Determination of size, concentration and elemental composition of colloids with laser-induced breakdown detection/spectroscopy
(LIBD/S). Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 371, (2001), 1063-1069.
455.4 /
not applicable
Liquid
6.8 ppm / RSD
not reported
Water
Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500nm). 0.275m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.
R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem.,  355, (1996), 16-20.
455.4 /
not applicable