48
Cd

112.411
No spectrum
currently
available
Cadmium sample under analysis

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
19 ppm,
11 ppm
ABS polymer
Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), single & double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Lower LOD for stationary samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.
M. Stepputat and R. Noll (2003). On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, 6210-6220.
228.80 / zero order signal
Solid
96 ppm
ABS polymer
Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Higher LOD for on-line (moving) samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.
M. Stepputat and R. Noll (2003). On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, 6210-6220.
228.80 / zero order signal
Solid
6 ppm
Soil
 To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
228.8
Solid
1.6 ppm, 0.5 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
226.502 & 228.802 /
C (247.857)
Solid
8 ppm /
5 – 10%
Starch- based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 16, (2001), 622-627.
226.502 /
not applicable
Solid
Undetermined
PuO2  
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
326.1057 /
not applicable
Solid
Undetermined
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
326.1057 /
not applicable
Solid
19-306 ppm
 
 To be added shortly
G.A. Theriault, S. Bodensteiner and S.H. Lieberman. A real-time fiber-optic probe for the in-situ delineation of metals in soils. Field Anal. Chem. Technol., 2, (1998), 117-125.
508.58
Solid
30 ppm /
~15%
Soil

Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1064 nm, energy 120 mJ, 8-9 ns pulse length. Spectrograph resolution 0.2 nm, IPDA detector. Samples dried at 95˚C and pelletised at 1 MPa pressure.

R. Wisbrun, I. Schechter, R. Niessner, H. Schröder and K.L. Kompa. Detector for trace elemental analysis of solid environmental samples by laser plasma spectroscopy. Anal. Chem., 66, (1994), 2964-2975.

PCR using multiple lines
Surface
0.4 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
228.8 /
not applicable
Surface
400 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999),  47-54.
228.8 / not applicable
Liquid
0.21 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
361.1 /
not applicable
Liquid
1 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
214.44 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.1 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
226.5, 228.5 /
not applicable
Liquid
500 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500nm). 0.275m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.
R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355, (1996), 16-20.
361.2 / not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
60 μg/m3 /
0.6%
(calculated from 1/RSD x 100%)
Aerosol in air
Sub-micron particulates, cross-flow & pneumatic-type nebulisers, standard aqueous solutions of metals,  Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), ICCD detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb
B.T. Fisher, H.A. Johnsen, S.G. Buckley and D.W. Hahn. Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic
metals. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1312-1319.
226.50 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
120 μg/m3 /
1.1%
(calculated from 1/RSD x 100%)
Aerosol in air
Sub-micron particulates, cross-flow & pneumatic-type nebulisers, standard aqueous solutions of metals,  Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), ICCD detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb
B.T. Fisher, H.A. Johnsen, S.G. Buckley and D.W. Hahn. Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic
metals. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1312-1319.
228.80 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
5 μg/dscm
Gaseous waste effluent
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Integrated emission line peak divided by continuous background intensity level. As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb.
S.G. Buckley, H.A. Johnsen, K.R. Hencken and D.W. Hahn. Implementation of
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals. Waste Manage., 20, (2000), 455-462.
228.8 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
39 μg/acm /
12%
Gas effluent
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), IPDA detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb.
H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh and J.P. Singh. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy as a multi-metal continuous-emission monitor. Appl. Opt., 38, (1999), 1459-1466.
228.8 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
120 μg/acm /
18%
Gas effluent
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), IPDA detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb.
H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh and J.P. Singh. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy as a multi-metal continuous-emission monitor. Appl. Opt., 38, (1999), 1459-1466.
326.11 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
0.019 ppm
Aerosol in air
 To be added shortly
M. Essien, L.J. Radziemski and J. Sneddon. Detection of cadmium, lead, zinc in aerosols by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 3, (1988),  985-988.
228.8