6
C

12.011
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

Web Elements
NIST Online
Plasus SpecLine trial version
Download spectral data
View experimental conditions

References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
No liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
850 – 2200 ppm /
7 – 20%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
393.36 /
not applicable
Solid
5100 ppm /
23%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), vacuum spectrometer with ICCD detector, As, Br, C, Cl, P, S.
L.J. Radziemski, D.A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo and R.D. Harris. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for LIBS-based Martian geology and exploration. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 237-248.
165.7 /
not applicable
Solid
3200 ppm /
6.3%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), vacuum spectrometer with ICCD detector, As, Br, C, Cl, P, S.
L.J. Radziemski, D.A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo and R.D. Harris. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for LIBS-based Martian geology and exploration. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 237-248.
193.1 /
not applicable
Solid
2400 ppm /
7.6%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), vacuum spectrometer with ICCD detector, As, Br, C, Cl, P, S.
L.J. Radziemski, D.A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo and R.D. Harris. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for LIBS-based Martian geology and exploration. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 237-248.
247.8 /
not applicable
Solid
7 ppm
Steel
 To be added shortly
I. Radivojevic, C. Haisch, R. Niessner, S. Florek, H. Becker-Ross and U. Panne. Microanalysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet. Anal. Chem., 76, (2004a), 1648-1658.
193.091
Solid
9, 17 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
193.091 /
Fe (187.747)
Solid
1.2 ppm
Steel
 To be added shortly
M.A. Khater, J.T. Costello and E.T.  Kennedy. Optimization of the emission characteristics of laser-produced steel plasmas in the vacuum ultraviolet: significant improvements in carbon detection limits. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 970-983.
97.7
Solid
60 ppm /
Typically <10%
Low-ash lignite
Commercial LIBS instrument. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), multiple 0.2 m spectrometers and gated, non-intesified CCD array detectors. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si.
B.L. Chadwick and D. Body. Development and commercial evaluation of laser-induced breakdown  spectroscopy chemical  analysis  technology in  the coal  power generation industry. Appl. Spectrosc.,  56, (2002), 70-74.
Not reported
Solid
5 ppm / 9%
Steel
Q-switched Nd:YAG, 532 nm, PRF 10 Hz, energy 60 mJ, 6 ns pulse length. 500 pre-pulses prior to measurement. 750mm Paschen Runge spectrometer. C, N, P, S. M. Hemmerlin, R. Meilland, H. Falk, P. Wintzens and L. Pauleri. Application of vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for steel analysis-comparison with spark-optical emissions spectrometry figures of merit. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 661-669.
133.571 /
Fe, not reported
Solid
300 ppm / 4 - 5%
Soil
Soil samples placed in a quartz sampling tube. Nd:YAG (1064nm), 0.5m spectrograph & IPDA.
D.A. Cremers, M.H. Ebinger, D.D. Breshears, P.J. Unkefer, S.A. Kammerdiener, M.J. Ferris, K.M. Catlett and J.R. Brown. Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). J. Environ. Qual., 30, (2001), 2002-2206.
247.8 / Si (250 - 252)
Solid
87 ppm
Steel
 To be added shortly
M.A. Khater, P. van Kampen, J.T. Costello, J.-P. Mosnier and E.T. Kennedy. Time-integrated laser-induced plasma spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet for the quantitative elemental characterization of steel alloys. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 33, (2000), 2252-2262.
97.7
Solid
7 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel
Standard steel samples probed in chamber filled with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), configured to give triple-pulse bursts. Paschen-Runge VUV spectrometer & PM detectors. C, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S & Si.
V. Sturm, L.  Peter and R. Noll. Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1275-1278.
193.09 / Fe (187.75)
Solid
60 ppm /
RSD not reported
Lignite
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si. Baseline subtracted peak area used.
F.J. Wallis, B.L. Chadwick and R.J.S. Morrison. Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1231-1235.
396.85 /
not applicable
Solid
80 ppm / 5.6%
Steel
Steel samples probed in Ar gas (atmospheric pressure). Nd:YAG laser (1064nm), 0.5m Czerny-Turner spectrograph &ICCD. C, Cr, Ni & Si. Fe reference lines chosen to have similar energy levels and same degree of ionisation. Voigt line-fitting used.
C. Aragón, J.A. Aguilera and F. Penalba Improvements in quantitative analysis of steel composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1259-1267.
193.09 / Fe (200.04)
Solid
1 ppm
Plant material
 To be added shortly
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
428.3
Solid
Undetermined
PuO2  
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
396.8468 /
not applicable
Solid
Undetermined
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
396.8468 /
not applicable
Solid
85 ppm, 85 ppm /
RSD not reported
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, H., S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa. Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 1067-1072.
422.6 /
not applicable
Solid
65 ppm / RSD = 1.2% (NB LOD calculated using 2σ
Steel
Solid steel samples in sampling chamber, filled with Ar and N2 at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). Czerny-Turner spectrometer (1m, filled with N2 ) & IPDA. C.
J.A. Aguilera, C. Aragón and J. Campos. Determination of carbon content in steel using laser-induced  breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 46, (1992), 1382-1387.
193.09 / Fe (201.07)
Solid
30 ppm /
2 – 25%
CaO in Fe ore
Excimer laser (λ not stated). Si, Al, Ca, Ti, Mg.
K. Grant, G.L. Paul and J.A. O'Neill. Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 45, (1991), 701-705.
431.86 /
Fe (389.56)
Liquid
Undetermined
Fe ore slurry

Laser type not stated, ablation energy 140 mJ per pulse, 2 Hz PRF, focussed by a 50 cm focal length lens. Correlation curves obtained for intensity ratio vs chemical analysis of sample.

L. Barrette and S. Turmel. On-line iron-ore slurry monitoring for real-time process control of pellet making processes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: graphitic vs. total carbon detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 715-723.

193.09 /
Fe (199.94)
Liquid
3 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel

Nd:YAG laser, PRF 10 Hz. 100 kg batch of molten steel at 1630 ˚C. Spectrometer Paschen-Runge 750 mm.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter and V. Sturm. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry - applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 637-649.

193.09 /
not reported
Gas/aerosol
36 ppm
Air
 To be added shortly
L. Dudragne, Ph. Adam and J. Amouroux. Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application for qualitative and quantitative detection of fluorine, chlorine, sulfur, and carbon in air. Appl. Spectrosc., 52, (1998), 1321-1327.
833.515