24
Cr

51.996
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

Web Elements
NIST Online
Plasus SpecLine trial version
Download spectral data
View experimental conditions

References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
30-100 ppm /
3.6-4.6%
Steel
‘Powerchip’ Nd:YAG, 50 uJ per pulse, PRF 1 kHz, pulse length 500 ps. Spectrographs used Ocean Optics HR 2000 (non-intensified detector) 0.03 nm resolution and SpectraPro 500, 0.02 nm resolution with ICCD detector. Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si. C. Lopez-Moreno, K. Amponsah-Manager, B.W. Smith, I.B. Gornushkin, N. Omenetto, S. Palanco, J.J. Laserna and J.D. Winefordner. Quantitative analysis of low-alloy steel by microchip laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20, (2005), 552-556.
425.43 /
Fe (425.07)
Solid
44-64ppm / 1.2-1.5%
Steel

Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). (i) 0.3m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni & Si.

K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.

425.44 /
Fe (404.58)
Solid
7, 27 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
267.7 & 286.257 /
Fe (187.747)
Solid
2 - 4 ppm
ABS polymer

Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), single & double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Lower LOD for stationary samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.

M. Stepputat and R. Noll (2003). On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, 6210-6220.
425.43 / zero order signal
Solid
73 ppm
ABS polymer

Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Higher LOD for on-line (moving) samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.

M. Stepputat and R. Noll (2003). On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, 6210-6220.
425.43 / zero order signal
Solid
310 ppm /
15%
Steel (in water) with N2 buffer gas
Q-swiched Nd:YAG (wavelength 1064 nm), pulse energy 10-30 mJ, 20 Hz PRF. Laser radiation delivered to underwater sample by 20 m long optical fibre 550 μm core diameter. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, IPDA detector. Cr, Mn, Si.
D.C.S. Beddows, O  Samek, M. Liska and H.H. Telle. Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of samples submerged in water using a single fibre light delivery system. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 1461-1471.
427.28 /
Fe (426.04)
Solid
204-256 ppm/
8-50%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu.
G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698.
425.4 /
not applicable
Solid
30 ppm /
1.64%
Soil
Q-swiched Nd:YAG, wavelength 355 nm, PRF 10 Hz, pulse energy 20-40 mJ. Spectrograph, focal length 250 mm, 1200-2400-3600 line/mm grating turret. ICCD detector. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn.
F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
520.6, 520.8 /
not applicable
Solid
LOD not reported /
RSD not reported
Steel
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength, 6 mJ pulse energy. Laser radiation focussed onto sample using a 100 mm plano-convex quartz lens. 600 mm focal length spectrograph with 1200 line/mm grating and IPDA detector. Mn, Cr, Ni.
I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou and M. Kompitsus. Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 671-683.
427.5 /
Fe (438.35)
Solid
2.5 ppm
Soil
 To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
425.4
Solid
<1 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
 
283.563 /
C (247.857)
Solid
3 ppm /
RSD not reported
Al alloy
Fibre-optic delivered LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
359.349 / Fe (344.0606)
Solid
3 ppm /
~25%
Al alloy
Direct delivered (no fibre) LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
324.7 / Fe (344.0606)
Solid
1 ppm /
4 – 7%
Starch- based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 16, (2001), 622-627.
425.435 /
not applicable
Solid
88 ppm,
39 ppm / 8.1, 8.2%
Synthetic silicate
Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements. Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.
A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 331-340.
267.71 / not reported
Solid
7 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel
 Standard steel samples probed in chamber filled with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), configured to give triple-pulse bursts. Paschen-Runge VUV spectrometer & PM detectors. C, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S & Si.
V. Sturm, L.  Peter and R. Noll. Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1275-1278.
267.72/ Fe (187.75)
Solid
35 ppm /
10%
PuO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
520.8436 /
not applicable
Solid
70 ppm /
10%
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
520.8436 /
not applicable
Solid
6 ppm / 7.1%
Steel
Steel samples probed in Ar gas (atmospheric pressure). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrograph &ICCD. C, Cr, Ni & Si. Fe reference lines chosen to have similar energy levels and same degree of ionisation. Voigt line-fitting used.
C. Aragón, J.A. Aguilera and F. Penalba. Improvements in quantitative analysis of steel composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1259-1267.
267.72 / Fe (271.44)
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminum
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Echelle spectrometer with ICCD, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Zn.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
357.9 nm /
Al (266.04)
Solid
5.2-31.3 ppm
Soil cone pentrometer
 To be added shortly
G.A. Theriault, S. Bodensteiner and S.H. Lieberman. A real-time fiber-optic probe for the in-situ delineation of metals in soils. Field Anal. Chem. Technol., 2, (1998), 117-125.
425.43
Solid
367 ppm / 7.3%
Steel under water
Steel samples placed under water in sampling container with circulating & filtered water. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with double-pulse facility. 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. Time-resolved images recorded using AOTF & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Mn & Si.
A.E. Pichahchy, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals underwater using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 52, (1997), 25-39.
425.44 / Fe (432.58)
Solid
5.8-96 ppm / 2.7-21%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1483-1499.
427.48 / Fe (426.05)
Solid
8-69 ppm / 8.2-30%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1483-1499.
425.44 / Fe (426.05)
Solid
40 ppm /
RSD not reported
Iron
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulse energy 12-15 mJ, focussed onto sample with 50 mm focal length lens. Double spectrograph, 1200 line/mm, PDA detector, averaging 5-20 shots.
L. Paksy, B. Német, A. Lengyel, L. Kozma and J. Czekkel. Production control of metal alloys by laser spectroscopy of the molten metals. Part 1. Preliminary investigations. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 51, (1996), 279-290.
425.4 /
Fe (392.3)
Solid
44-64 ppm / 1.2-1.5%
Steel
Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni & Si.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
425.44 / Fe (404.58)
Solid
10 ppm /
~15%
Soil
Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1064 nm, energy 120 mJ, 8-9 ns pulse length. Spectrograph resolution 0.2 nm, IPDA detector. Samples dried at 95˚C and pelletised at 1 MPa pressure.
R. Wisbrun, I. Schechter, R. Niessner, H. Schröder and K.L. Kompa. Detector for trace elemental analysis of solid environmental samples by laser plasma spectroscopy. Anal. Chem., 66, (1994), 2964-2975.
PCR using multiple lines
Surface
3.1-5.7 pg (4.4-8.1 ng/cm2) / 20-25%
Particles on Al
Solid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
425.44 / Not applicable
Surface
3 pg (4.3 ng/cm2) / 20-25%
Liquid on Al
Liquid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064nm). (i) 0.3m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
425.44 /
not applicable
Surface
3 pg (4.3 ng/cm2) / 20-25%
Liquid on Al
Liquid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
425.44 / Not applicable
Surface
0.04 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
267.7 /
not applicable
Surface
40 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999), 47-54.
267.7 / not applicable
Liquid
0.4 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
Standard solutions probed in bulk and as a liquid jet. Aiming to produce a Tc detector. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), spectrograph & ICCD. Cr, Mg, Mn & Re.
F.-Y. Yueh, R.C. Sharma, J.P. Singh, H. Zhang and W.A. Spencer. Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 52, (2002), 1307-1315.
425.4 / not applicable
Liquid
LOD not applicable /
RSD not reported
Steel
Direct illumination of molten steel in Ar atmosphere, using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 334 mJ pulse energy, 20 Hz PRF. Monitoring the detected analyte emission wrt time as additions of analyte are made to molten steel. Spectrograph 500 mm focal length imaging Czerny-Turner, 2400 line/mm grating. 100 shot average.
J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bauerle and N. Ramaseder. Rapid in-situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 685-693.
267.716 /
Fe (278.810)
Liquid
0.13 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
520.9 /
not applicable
Liquid
310 ppm
 To be added shortly
D.C.S. Beddows, O  Samek, M. Liska and H.H. Telle. Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of samples submerged in water using a single fibre light delivery system. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 1461-1471.
427.28
Liquid
200 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000), 2248-2262.
520.45 /
Hβ
Liquid
0.1 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
266-268, 274-279, 283-288 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.1 ppm / 5%
Water
 Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) operating at 400 mJ at 1 Hz PRF. Spectrograph 1 m focal length. Detector, optical multichannel analyser. Ca, Cr, Mg.
G. Arca, A. Ciucci, V. Palleschi, S. Rastelli and E. Tognoni. Trace element analysis in water by the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. Appl. Spectrosc., 51, (1997), 1102-1105.
283.563
Gas/Aerosol
40 μg/m3 /
0.33%
(calculated from 1/RSD x 100%)
Aerosol in air
Sub-micron particulates, cross-flow & pneumatic-type nebulisers, standard aqueous solutions of metals,  Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), ICCD detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb
B.T. Fisher, H.A. Johnsen, S.G. Buckley and D.W. Hahn. Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic
metals. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1312-1319.
428.97 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
30 μg/m3 /
0.32% (calculated from 1/RSD x 100%)
Aerosol in air
Sub-micron particulates, cross-flow & pneumatic-type nebulisers, standard aqueous solutions of metals,  Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), ICCD detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb
B.T. Fisher, H.A. Johnsen, S.G. Buckley and D.W. Hahn. Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic
metals. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1312-1319.
425.44 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
5 μg/dscm
Gaseous waste effluent
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Integrated emission line peak divided by continuous background intensity level. As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb.
S.G. Buckley, H.A. Johnsen, K.R. Hencken and D.W. Hahn. Implementation of
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals. Waste Manage., 20, (2000), 455-462.
283.6 /
not applicable

Gas/aerosol

60 fg /
RSD not reported
N2 gas

Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m focal length sprctrograph, gratings 1200 or 2400 line/mm. ICCD detector. Ca, Cr and Mg

D.W. Hahn and M.M. Lunden. Detection and analysis of aerosol particles by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Aerosol Sci. Technol.,33, (2000), 30-48.

425.44, 427.48 & 428.97 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
400 ng/dscm
Air
 To be added shortly
M. Martin and M.-D. Cheng. Detection of chromium aerosol using time-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1279-1285.
425.5
Gas/Aerosol
6 μg/acm /
10%
Gas effluent
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), IPDA detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb.
H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh and J.P. Singh. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy as a multi-metal continuous-emission monitor. Appl. Opt., 38, (1999), 1459-1466.
425.44 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
3.5 ng / RSD not reported
Particle in Xe COD
 Continuous optical discharge (COD) initiated by Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser and maintained by cw CO2 (10.6 mm) laser. Scanning monochomator, 0.5 m focal length, gratings 1200 and 3600 line/mm. Photomultiplier tube detector. Laser ablation of solids into COD plasma. Cl, O, Na, Li and Ca.
D.A. Cremers, F.L. Archuleta and R.J. Martinez. Evaluation of the continuous optical discharge for spectrochemical analysis. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 40, (1985), 665-679.
425.44 / not applicable