29
Cu

63.546
Copper sample under analysis

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
163-353 ppm / 1.3-2.0%
Steel
Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni & Si.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
324.75 / Fe (322.58)
Solid
0.40 ppm, 0.36 ppm
Aluminium alloy, microchip laser
 To be added shortly
A. Freedman, F.J. lannarilli and J.C. Wormhoudt. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 1076-1082.
324.7537
Solid
6, 10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
324.754 /
Fe (187.747)
Solid
7 ppm
Steel in Ar
 To be added shortly
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
324.8
Solid
3 ppm
Al, RSS
 To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B., 59, (2004), 975-986.
327.4
Solid
3 ppm /
5.05%
Al
Nd:YAG 1064 nm wavelength, 70 mJ per pulse. Echelle spectrograph with ICCD detector. Cu, Mg, Mn, Si M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
324.75 /
Al (305)
Solid
6.31 ppm /
6.31%
Al
Nd:YAG 1064 nm wavelength, 70 mJ per pulse. Echelle spectrograph with ICCD detector. Cu, Mg, Mn, Si M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
324.75 /
Fe (375.8)
Solid
100 ng (determined from mass ablation)/
RSD not reported
Copper
Sample 25 metres remote from laser. Same laser (Ti sapphire?) capable of generating pulses of 75 fs, 200 ps and 5 ns duration, PRF 10 Hz, max energy 350 mJ, wavelength 795 nm. f/5 Newtonian telescope, 500 mm focal length spectrograph, 600 line/mm grating and ICCD detector M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and L. Wöste. Remote LIBS with ultrashort pulses: characteristics in the picosecond and femtosecond regime. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
521.82 /
not applicable
Solid
30 ppm /
9.11%
Soil
Q-swiched Nd:YAG, wavelength 355 nm, PRF 10 Hz, pulse energy 20-40 mJ. Spectrograph, focal length 250 mm, 1200-2400-3600 line/mm grating turret. ICCD detector. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
327.4 /
not applicable
Solid
12-61 ppm /
8-50%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu. G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698.
324.8 /
not applicable
Solid
1 ppm /
5 – 8%
Starch- based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 16, (2001).  622-627.
324.754 /
not applicable
Solid
1.8 ppm, 0.3 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
324.754 /
C (247.857)
Solid
3.3 ppm
Soil
 To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
324.8
Solid
56 ppm / RSD not reported
Al alloy
Fibre-optic delivered LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
324.7 / not applicable
Solid
160 ppm / ~25%
Al alloy
Direct delivered (no fibre) LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
324.7 / not applicable
Solid
360 ppm
Stainless steel
 To be added shortly
A.I. Whitehouse, J. Young, I.M. Botheroyd, S. Lawson, C.P. Evans and J. Wright. Remote material analysis of nuclear power station steam generator tubes by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 821-830.
324.75, 327.40
Solid
38 ppm,
43 ppm /
6.6,10%.
Synthetic silicate in 5 Torr CO2
Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements.
Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.
A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000). 331-340.
327.39 / not reported
Solid
0.08 ppm /
8-15%
Plant material
Powdered leaf samples fixed on tape. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m spectrograph & ICCD detector. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma Spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
324.8 / not applicable
Solid
150 ppm /
10%
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
324.7540 /
not applicable
Solid
90 ppm /
10%
PuO2  
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
 
324.7540 /
not applicable
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminium
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere. Echelle spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser (λ not stated). Si, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ti, Fe.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B.,  53, (1998), 1815-1825.
296.1 /
Al (266.04)
Solid
544 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
282.44 /
Zn (280.09)
Solid
520 ppm / 4.0%
Steel under water
Steel samples placed under water in sampling container with circulating & filtered water. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with double-pulse facility. 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. Time-resolved images recorded using AOTF & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Mn & Si.
A.E. Pichahchy, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals underwater using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 52, (1997), 25-39.
324.75 / Fe (330.60 & 330.63)
Solid
4.8-15 ppm / 10-19%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., (1996), 50, 1483-1499.
324.75 / Ti (324.20)
Solid
4.5-11 ppm / 7.7-21%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., (1996), 50, 1483-1499.
327.40 / Ti (324.20)
Solid
10 ppm /
4-6%
Al
Nd:YAG laser 1064nm, PRF 1Hz, 8 ns pulse duration, max energy 500 mJ. 660 mm focal length spectrograph with 2400 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Mn, Mg, Cu and Si. M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 499-507.
327.4 /
not applicable
Solid
20 ppm /
~15%
Soil
Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1064 nm, energy 120 mJ, 8-9 ns pulse length. Spectrograph resolution 0.2 nm, IPDA detector. Samples dried at 95˚C and pelletised at 1 MPa pressure. R. Wisbrun, I. Schechter, R. Niessner, H. Schröder and K.L. Kompa. Detector for trace elemental analysis of solid environmental samples by laser plasma spectroscopy. Anal. Chem., 66, (1994), 2964-2975.
PCR using multiple lines
Surface
0.01 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
324.8 /
not applicable
Surface
10 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999), 47-54.
324.8 / not applicable
Liquid
0.0042 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg,  Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
510.6 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.0095 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374.
324.7 /
not applicable
Liquid
LOD not applicable /
RSD not reported
Steel
Direct illumination of molten steel in Ar atmosphere, using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 334 mJ pulse energy, 20 Hz PRF. Monitoring the detected analyte emission wrt time as additions of analyte are made to molten steel. Spectrograph 500 mm focal length imaging Czerny-Turner, 2400 line/mm grating. 100 shot average. J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bauerle and N. Ramaseder. Rapid in-situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 685-693.
324.754 /
Fe (322.205)
Liquid
0.017 ppm (estimated) /
RSD not reported
Electro- deposited metals on nickel electrode
TEA CO2 laser, vacuum sample chamber, monochromator and PMT detector.  Metals electro-deposited on nickel plate electrode from aqueous solutions. B, Cu, Fe, Li, Pb.
M. Pardede, H. Kurniawan, M.O. Tjja, K. Ikezawa, T. Maruyama and K. Kagawa. Spectrochemical analysis of metal elements electrodeposited from water samples by laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1229-1236.
327.4 /
not applicable
Liquid
5 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000),  2248-2262.
324.75 /
Hβ, Hγ, Ca (λ?)
Liquid
0.01 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
324.75, 327.4 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
0.87 ng / RSD not reported
Particle in Xe COD
 Continuous optical discharge (COD) initiated by Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser and maintained by cw CO2 (10.6 mm) laser. Scanning monochomator, 0.5 m focal length, gratings 1200 and 3600 line/mm. Photomultiplier tube detector. Laser ablation of solids into COD plasma. Cl, O, Na, Li and Ca.
D.A. Cremers, F.L. Archuleta and R.J. Martinez. Evaluation of the continuous optical discharge for spectrochemical analysis. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 40, (1985), 665-679.
324.75