26
Fe

55.845
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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
0.32 ppm, 0.14 ppm
Aluminium alloy, microchip laser
To be added shortly
A. Freedman, F.J. lannarilli and J.C. Wormhoudt. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 1076-1082.
373.3317, 373.4864, 373.7131
Solid
3 – 7.5 % /
RSD 10 – 25%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
404.58 /
not applicable
Solid
3 ppm
Al, RSP
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
259.9
Solid
6 ppm
Al, RSS
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
259.9
Solid
1900 ppm
Slag
To be added shortly
C. López-Moreno, S. Palanco and J.J. Laserna. Remote laser-induced plasma spectrometry for elemental analysis of samples of environmental interest. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 1479-1484.
489.2
Solid
447-628 ppm/
40-90%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu. G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698.
438.4 /
not applicable
Solid
100 ppm /
Typically <10%
Low-ash lignite
Commercial LIBS instrument. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), multiple 0.2 m spectrometers and gated, non-intesified CCD array detectors. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si.
B.L. Chadwick and D. Body. Development and commercial evaluation of laser-induced breakdown  spectroscopy chemical  analysis  technology in  the coal  power generation industry. Appl. Spectrosc.,  56, (2002), 70-74.
Not reported
Solid
500 ppm /
3.02%
Soil
Q-swiched Nd:YAG, wavelength 355 nm, PRF 10 Hz, pulse energy 20-40 mJ. Spectrograph, focal length 250 mm, 1200-2400-3600 line/mm grating turret. ICCD detector. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
404.6, 406.4, 407.2 /
not applicable
Solid
30 ppm / RSD not reported
Al alloy
Fibre-optic delivered LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
344.0606 / not applicable
Solid
15 ppm / ~25%
Al alloy
Direct delivered (no fibre) LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
344.0606 / not applicable
Solid
90 ppm /
RSD not reported
Lignite
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si. Baseline subtracted peak area used.
F.J. Wallis, B.L. Chadwick and R.J.S. Morrison. Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1231-1235.
238.20 /
not applicable
Solid
400 ppm /
10%
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
248.3271 /
not applicable
Solid
3 ppm /
8-15%
Plant material
Powdered leaf samples fixed on tape. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m spectrograph & ICCD detector. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma Spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
404.6  / not applicable
Solid
1-10 ppm /
10 – 23%
Aluminium
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere. Echelle spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser (λ not stated). Si, Cu, Mn, Mg, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ti, Fe.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B.,  53, (1998), 1815-1825.
373.5 /
266.0
Solid
22 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
302.06 /
Zn (307.21)
& (307.59)
Liquid
0.05 ppm (estimated) /
RSD not reported
Electro- deposited metals on nickel electrode
TEA CO2 laser, vacuum sample chamber, monochromator and PMT detector.  Metals electro-deposited on nickel plate electrode from aqueous solutions. B, Cu, Fe, Li, Pb.
M. Pardede, H. Kurniawan, M.O. Tjja, K. Ikezawa, T. Maruyama and K. Kagawa. Spectrochemical analysis of metal elements electrodeposited from water samples by laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1229-1236.
358.1 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.01 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
238-241, 260-263, 273-276 /
not applicable