82
Pb

207.2
Lead sample under analysis

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
16-24 ppm
ABS polymer
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), single & double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Lower LOD for stationary samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.
M Stepputat and R. Noll. On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, (2003), 6210-6220.
405.78 / zero-order signal
Solid
140 ppm
ABS polymer
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), double-pulse, Paschen-Runge polychromator & PM tube. Sampled in atmospheric air. Higher LOD for on-line (moving) samples. Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb & Sb.
M Stepputat and R. Noll. On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl. Opt., 42, (2003), 6210-6220.
405.78 / zero-order signal
Solid
50 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
405.7
Solid
8.4 ppm, 0.6 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
405.782 /
C (247.857)
Solid
17 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
405.8
Solid
18 ppm /
3 – 7%
Starch- based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16, (2001), 622-627.
405.782 /
not applicable
Solid
17 ppm,
95 ppm /
4.1, 13%
Synthetic silicate
Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements.
Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.
A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc. 54, (2000),  331-340.
405.78 / not reported
Solid
400 ppm /
10%
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
405.7820 /
not applicable
Solid
0.7-53.1 ppm
To be added shortly
G.A. Theriault, S. Bodensteiner and S.H. Lieberman. A real-time fiber-optic probe for the in-situ delineation of metals in soils. Field Anal. Chem. Technol., 2, (1998), 117-125.
405.78
Solid
405 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
287.33 /
Zn (280.09)
Solid
54 ppm /
3 – 13%
Zinc alloy
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sn.
L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of additives in solid zinc alloys by laser-induced plasma spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 12, (1997), 997-1004.
283.31 /
Zn (280.09)
Solid
5.2-40 ppm / 7.5-14%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 50, (1996), 1483-1499.
405.78 / Fe (407.17)
Solid
8000 ppm
Lead paint
Portable Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), passive QS. 0.3 m spectrograph & IPDA.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 222-233.
220.4 / no reference used
Solid
10 ppm
Concrete
To be added shortly
A.V. Pakhomov, W. Nichols and J. Borysow. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of lead in concrete. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 880-884.
405.78
Solid
17 ppm  /
2-3%
Sand
Ground & compacted samples. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. 580 Torr air atmosphere. Ba, Pb.
A.S Eppler, D.A. Cremers, D.D. Hickmott and A.C. Koskelo. Matrix effects in the detection of Pb and Ba in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1175-1181.
405.7 / Fe (406.3)
Solid
298 ppm / RSD 80% (ave.)
Soil
Mixed & compacted samples. Portable Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), passive QS. 0.3 m spectrograph & IPDA. Ba, Be, Pb & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals in the environment using a portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 222-233.
405.78 / Si (390.55)
Solid
57 ppm /
2-3%
Soil
Ground & compacted samples. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. 580 Torr air atmosphere. Ba, Pb.
A.S Eppler, D.A. Cremers, D.D. Hickmott and A.C. Koskelo. Matrix effects in the detection of Pb and Ba in soils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1175-1181.
405.7 / Fe (406.3)
Solid
10 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
R. Wisbrun, I. Schechter, R. Niessner and K.L. Kompa. Detector for trace elemental analysis of solid environmental samples by laser plasma spectroscopy. Anal. Chem., 66, (1994), 2964-2975.
405.8
Surface
0.06 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
405.8 /
not applicable
Surface
60 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999), 47-54.
405.8 /
not applicable
Surface
35000 ng/cm2
On copper and sulphur
To be added shortly
D. Franzke, H. Klos and A. Wokaun. Element identification on the surface of inorganic solids by excimer laser-induced emission spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 46, (1992), 587-592.
401.99, 405.78, 406.21, 416.81
Surface
<10 ppm
On copper
To be added shortly
D. Franzke, H. Klos and A. Wokaun. Element identification on the surface of inorganic solids by excimer laser-induced emission spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 46, (1992), 587-592.
401.99, 405.78, 406.21, 416.81
Liquid
1.1 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
405.8 /
na
Liquid
0.3 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
ArF laser (193 nm), efficient plasma formation due to resonant absorption in water. 0.5 m spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Na & Pb.
K.M. Lo and N.H. Cheung. ArF laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for part- per-billion analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 682-688.
405.8 / not applicable
Liquid
0.025 ppm (estimated) /
RSD not reported
Electro- deposited metals on nickel electrode
TEA CO2 laser, vacuum sample chamber, monochromator and PMT detector.  Metals electro-deposited on nickel plate electrode from aqueous solutions. B, Cu, Fe, Li, Pb.
M. Pardede, H. Kurniawan, M.O. Tjja, K. Ikezawa, T. Maruyama and K. Kagawa. Spectrochemical analysis of metal elements electrodeposited from water samples by laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1229-1236.
405.7 /
not applicable
Liquid
13.1 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
Metal ions dissolved in ultra-pure water. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). 0.275 m Czerny-Turner spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Eu & Pb.
T. Bundschuh, J.I. Yun and R. Knopp. Determination of size, concentration and elemental composition of colloids with laser-induced breakdown detection/spectroscopy (LIBD/S). Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 371, (2001), 1063-1069.
405.7  / not applicable
Liquid
40 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000), 2248-2262.
405.78 /
Hγ
Liquid
10 ppm
Liquid evaporated on graphite
To be added shortly
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
405.78, 406.21
Liquid
2 ppm /
RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
261.37, 261.42, 280.2, 283.31 /
not applicable
Liquid
12.5 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500 nm). 0.275 m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.
R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355, (1996), 16-20.
405.8 / not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
190 μg/m3 /
1.79%
(calculated from 1/RSD x 100%)
Aerosol in air
Sub-micron particulates, cross-flow & pneumatic-type nebulisers, standard aqueous solutions of metals,  Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), ICCD detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb
B.T. Fisher, H.A. Johnsen, S.G. Buckley and D.W. Hahn. Temporal gating for the optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and analysis of toxic
metals. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1312-1319.
405.78 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
20 μg/dscm
Gaseous waste effluent
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Integrated emission line peak divided by continuous background intensity level. As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb.
S.G. Buckley, H.A. Johnsen, K.R. Hencken and D.W. Hahn. Implementation of
laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a continuous emissions monitor for toxic metals. Waste Manage., 20, (2000), 455-462.
220.4 /
not applicable
Gas/Aerosol
68 μg/acm /
8%
Gas effluent
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), IPDA detector, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb.
H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh and J.P. Singh. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy as a multi-metal continuous-emission monitor. Appl. Opt., 38, (1999), 1459-1466.
405.78 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
155 μg/m3
Aerosol in air
To be added shortly
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne, R. Niessner, G.A. Petrucci, P. Cavalli and N. Omenetto. On-line and in-situ detection of lead aerosols by plasma-spectroscopy and laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Anal. Chim. Acta, 346, (1997), 37-48.
405.8
Gas/aerosol
0.21 ppm
Aerosol in air
To be added shortly
M. Essien, L.J. Radziemski and J. Sneddon. Detection of cadmium, lead, zinc in aerosols by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 3, (1988), 985-988.
405.8