3
Li

6.941
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
10 – 20 ppm /
40 – 44%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
670.78 /
not applicable
Solid
2.5 ppm,
20 ppm /
2.5, 8.8%
Synthetic silicate
Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements.
Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.
A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 331-340.
670.77 &
670.79 / not reported
Solid
LOD not reported /
RSD not reported
Al
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1064 nm, PRF 1-20 Hz, 50 mJ pulse energy, 7-8 ns pulse width. Fluence on sample 6.4 J/cm2. Czerny-Turner spectrograph, 1.5 m focal length, 2400 line/mm grating, PMT detector. Sample in Xe atmosphere.
J.M. Gomba, C.D’Angelo, D. Bertuccelli and G. Bertuccelli. Spectroscopic characterisation of laser induced breakdown in aluminium-lithium alloy samples for quantitative determination of traces. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 695-705.
323.265 /
Al (281.618)
Solid
40 ppm /
10%
PuO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
610.3642 /
not applicable
Solid
10 ppm,
14 ppm /
RSD not reported
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa. Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 1067-1072
670.7 /
not applicable
Liquid
6 ppm & 3 ppm / RSD not reported
Ice/10% soil
Samples formed by mixing soils with deionised water and then freezing. 7 Torr CO2 atmosphere. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Long range measurements (4 & 6.5 m), echellette spectrograph & ICCD or 0.25 m grating spectrograph with ICCD. Ba, Li, Mn, Sr, Ti.
Z.A. Arp, D.A. Cremers, R.C. Wiens, D.M. Wayne, B. Sallé and S. Maurice. Analysis of water ice and water/ice soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 897-909.
670.8 / not applicable
Liquid
0.05 ppm (estimated) /
RSD not reported
Electro- deposited metals on nickel electrode
TEA CO2 laser, vacuum sample chamber, monochromator and PMT detector.  Metals electro-deposited on nickel plate electrode from aqueous solutions. B, Cu, Fe, Li, Pb.
M. Pardede, H. Kurniawan, M.O. Tjja, K. Ikezawa, T. Maruyama and K. Kagawa. Spectrochemical analysis of metal elements electrodeposited from water samples by laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 55, (2001), 1229-1236.
670.7 /
not applicable

Liquid

0.013 ppm / RSD not reported

Water

Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500 nm). 0.275 m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.

R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355, (1996), 16-20.

670.8 / not applicable

Liquid
0.009 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000),  2248-2262.
670.774 /
Hα, Na (λ?)
Liquid
0.3 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water
Isolated droplet sample introduction system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Al. PMT detector.
H.A. Archontaki and  S.R. Crouch. Evaluation  of an  isolated droplet sample introduction system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 42, (1988), 741-746.
670.78 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.006 ppm /
4 – 8%
Water,
Organic solvents
RSS (single pulse) & RSP (double pulse). Plasma formed within the liquid. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al. PMT detector.
D.A. Cremers, L.J. Radziemski and T.R. Loree. Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark. Appl. Spectrosc,. 38, (1984), 721-729.
670.78 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
1.5 ng
To be added shortly
D.A. Cremers, F.L. Archuleta and R.J. Martinez. Evaluation of the continuous optical discharge for spectrochemical analysis. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 40, (1985), 665-679.
670.78/
670.79