25
Mn

54.938
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
0.11 ppm,
0.05 ppm
Aluminium alloy
To be added shortly
A. Freedman, F.J. lannarilli and J.C. Wormhoudt. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 1076-1082.
403.0753, 403.3062, 403.4483
Solid
300 – 450 ppm  /
20 – 40%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
403.08 /
not applicable
Solid
211-454 ppm / 0.9 – 2.0%
Steel
Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni & Si.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
403.08, 403.31,  403.45 / Fe (404.58)
Solid
30-40 ppm /
1.2-6.3%
Steel
‘Powerchip’ Nd:YAG, 50 mJ per pulse, PRF 1 kHz, pulse length 500 ps. Spectrographs used Ocean Optics HR 2000 (non-intensified detector) 0.03 nm resolution and SpectraPro 500, 0.02 nm resolution with ICCD detector. Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si.
C. Lopez-Moreno, K. Amponsah-Manager, B.W. Smith, I.B. Gornushkin, N. Omenetto, S. Palanco, J.J. Laserna and J.D. Winefordner. Quantitative analysis of low-alloy steel by microchip laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20, (2005), 552-556.
403.07 /
Fe (400.52)
Solid
4.99 ppm /
3.41%
Steel
Nd:YAG 1064 nm wavelength, 70 mJ per pulse. Echelle spectrograph with ICCD detector. Cu, Mg, Mn, Si
M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
403.07 /
Fe (375.8)
Solid
15.28 ppm /
3.17%
Al
Nd:YAG 1064 nm wavelength, 70 mJ per pulse. Echelle spectrograph with ICCD detector. Cu, Mg, Mn, Si
M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
403.07 /
Al (305)
Solid
3 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
294.9
Solid
8 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
294.9
Solid
4, 10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
293.306 /
Fe (271.441)
Solid
51-72 ppm /
8-50%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu.
G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698
294.9 /
not applicable
Solid
67-78 ppm /
8-50%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu.
G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698
403.1 /
not applicable
Solid
35-36 ppm /
8-50%
Al
Excimer (KrF) laser, wavelength 248 nm, 10 ns pulses at 100-300 mJ per pulse. Spectrograph focal length 500 mm, 1200 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Sample in air. Mg, Mn, Si, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cu.
G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698.
279.5 /
not applicable
Solid
100 ppm /
5.56%
Soil
Q-swiched Nd:YAG, wavelength 355 nm, PRF 10 Hz, pulse energy 20-40 mJ. Spectrograph, focal length 250 mm, 1200-2400-3600 line/mm grating turret. ICCD detector. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn.
F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
475.4, 472.7, 478.3, 482.3 /
not applicable
Solid
235 ppm /
1.43-6.29%
Steel
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm wavelength, 15 mJ pulse energy. Laser radiation focussed onto sample using a 100 mm plano-convex quartz lens. 600 mm focal length spectrograph with 1200 line/mm grating and IPDA detector. Mn, Cr, Ni.
I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou and M. Kompitsus. Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 671-683.
482.352 /
Fe (495.758)
Solid
113 ppm /
0.94-6.00%
Steel
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength, 30 mJ pulse energy. Laser radiation focussed onto sample using a 100 mm plano-convex quartz lens. 600 mm focal length spectrograph with 1200 line/mm grating and IPDA detector. Mn, Cr, Ni.
I. Bassiotis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Giannoudakos, F. Roubani-Kalantzopoulou and M. Kompitsus. Effects of experimental parameters in quantitative analysis of steel alloy by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 671-683.
482.352 /
Fe (495.758)
Solid
90 ppm / RSD not reported
Al alloy
Fibre-optic delivered LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
404.136 / Fe (406.3594)
Solid
10 ppm / ~25%
Al alloy
Direct delivered (no fibre) LIBS of Al-alloy standards. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), 0.5 m spectrometer & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn & Zn.
A.K. Rai, H. Zhang, F.Y. Yueh, J.P. Singh and A. Weisburg. Parametric study of a fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe for analysis of aluminum alloys. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 2371-2383.
404.136 / Fe (406.3594)
Solid
0.7 ppm /
2 – 6%
Starch- based flour
Powder food samples (pelletised) in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure (0.2 – 40 Torr). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, K. Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr.
H.-H. Cho, Y.-J. Kim, Y.-S. Jo, K. Kitagawa, N. Arai and Y.-I. Lee. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace elements in starch-based flours. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 16, (2001), 622-627.
257.610 /
not applicable
Solid
9 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel
Standard steel samples probed in chamber filled with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), configured to give triple-pulse bursts. Paschen-Runge VUV spectrometer & PM detectors. C, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S & Si.
V. Sturm, L.  Peter and R. Noll. Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1275-1278.
193.31 / Fe (187.75)
Solid
110 ppm /
10%
PuO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
279.4820 /
not applicable
Solid
60 ppm /
10%
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
279.4820 /
not applicable
Solid
0.8 ppm /
8-15%
Plant material
Powdered leaf samples fixed on tape. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m spectrograph & ICCD detector. Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.
Q. Sun, M. Tran, B.W. Smith and J.D. Winefordner. Direct determination of P, Al, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg and Fe in plant materials by laser-induced plasma Spectroscopy. Can. J. Anal. Sci. Spectrosc., 44, (1999), 164-170.
403.08 / not applicable
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminum
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Echelle spectrometer with ICCD, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Zn.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
Mn line not reported /
Al (266.04)
Solid
1200 ppm / 6.0%
Steel under water
Steel samples placed under water in sampling container with circulating & filtered water. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with double-pulse facility. 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. Time-resolved images recorded using AOTF & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Mn & Si.
A.E. Pichahchy, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals underwater using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 52, (1997), 25-39.
403.xx / Fe (404.58)
Solid
6.7-213 ppm / 1.3-13%
Soil
Comparison of spherical & cylindrical lenses, focal length, angle of incidence, time-resolved spectroscopy & temporal / spectral imaging. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), AOTF & ICCD, 0.5 m & 1.2 m spectrograph & IPDA. Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb & Sr.
R.A. Multari, L.E. Foster, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 50, (1996), 1483-1499.
403.45 / Fe (407.17)
Solid
70 ppm /
RSD not reported
Al
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulse energy 12-15 mJ, focussed onto sample with 50 mm focal length lens. Double spectrograph, 1200 line/mm, PDA detector, averaging 5-20 shots.
L. Paksy, B. Német, A. Lengyel, L. Kozma and J. Czekkel. Production control of metal alloys by laser spectroscopy of the molten metals. Part 1. Preliminary investigations. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 51, (1996), 279-290
404.1 /
Al (394.4)
Solid
50-100 ppm /
RSD not reported
Fe
Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulse energy 12-15 mJ, focussed onto sample with 50 mm focal length lens. Double spectrograph, 1200 line/mm, PDA detector, averaging 5-20 shots.
L. Paksy, B. Német, A. Lengyel, L. Kozma and J. Czekkel. Production control of metal alloys by laser spectroscopy of the molten metals. Part 1. Preliminary investigations. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 51, (1996), 279-290
403.1, 293.3 / Fe (294.77)
Solid
1 ppm /
4-6%
Al
Nd:YAG laser 1064nm, PRF 1Hz, 8 ns pulse duration, max energy 500 mJ. 660 mm focal length spectrograph with 2400 line/mm grating, IPDA detector. Mn, Mg, Cu and Si.
M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 499-507.
403.1, 403.3 / not applicable
Surface
16-58 pg (23-51 ng/cm2) / 20-25%
Particles on Al
Solid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
403.08, 403.31, 403.45 / Not applicable
Surface
16 pg (22 ng/cm2) / 20-25%
Liq. on Al
Liquid samples on Al surface. Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Ba, Cr, Mn & Sr.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
403.08, 403.31, 403.45 / Not applicable
Surface
0.03 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
259.4 /
not applicable
Surface
30 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy metal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999), 47-54.
259.4 / not applicable
Liquid
15 ppm and
101 ppm / RSD not reported
Ice/10% soil
Samples formed by mixing soils with deionised water and then freezing. 7 Torr CO2 atmosphere. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Long range measurements (4 & 6.5 m), echellette spectrograph & ICCD or 0.25 m grating spectrograph with ICCD. Ba, Li, Mn, Sr, Ti.
Z.A. Arp, D.A. Cremers, R.C. Wiens, D.M. Wayne, B. Sallé and S. Maurice. Analysis of water ice and water/ice soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 897-909.
403.0,
403.3 &
403.4 / not applicable
Liquid
0.7 ppm
/ RSD not reported
Water
Standard solutions probed in bulk and as a liquid jet. Aiming to produce a Tc detector. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), spectrograph & ICCD. Cr, Mg, Mn & Re.
F.-Y. Yueh, R.C. Sharma, J.P. Singh, H. Zhang and W.A. Spencer. Evaluation of the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of trace element in liquid. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 52, (2002), 1307-1315.
403.076 / not applicable
Liquid
LOD not applicable /
RSD not reported
Steel
Direct illumination of molten steel in Ar atmosphere, using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 334 mJ pulse energy, 20 Hz PRF. Monitoring the detected analyte emission wrt time as additions of analyte are made to molten steel. Spectrograph 500 mm focal length imaging Czerny-Turner, 2400 line/mm grating. 100 shot average.
J. Gruber, J. Heitz, H. Strasser, D. Bauerle and N. Ramaseder. Rapid in-situ analysis of liquid steel by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 685-693.
293.306 /
Fe (295.394)
Liquid
10 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000), 2248-2262.
403.08 /
Hγ, Ca (λ?)
Liquid
7.2 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water
Isolated droplet sample introduction system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Al. PMT detector.
H.A.  Archontaki and  S.R.  Crouch.  Evaluation  of an  isolated droplet  sample introduction system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 42, (1988), 741-746.
257.61 /
not applicable