28
Ni

58.693
Nickel sample under analysis

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
0.51 ppm,
0.10 ppm
Aluminum alloy
To be added shortly
A. Freedman, F.J. lannarilli and J.C. Wormhoudt. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 1076-1082.
352.4535
Solid
90 ppm
Steel
To be added shortly
C. Lopez-Moreno, K. Amponsah-Manager, B.W. Smith, I.B. Gornushkin, N. Omenetto, S. Palanco, J.J. Laserna and J.D. Winefordner. Quantitative analysis of low-alloy steel by microchip laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20, (2005), 552-556.
341.42
Solid
540 ppm
Molten steel
o be added shortly
S. Palanco, S. Conesa and J.J. Laserna. Analytical control of liquid steel in an induction melting furnace using a remote laser induced plasma spectrometer. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 462-467.
Not stated, 370-400nm region
Solid
31, 35 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
225.385 /
Fe (187.747)
Solid
30 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
300.3
Solid
30 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M.R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti and N. Senesi. Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Geoderma, 106, (2002), 45-62.
300.3
Solid
6.8 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
231.6
Solid
8.5 ppm
Steel in air
To be added shortly
R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter and V. Sturm. Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry - applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 637-649.
231.6
Solid
12 ppm,
224 ppm / 3.6, 14%
Synthetic silicate in 5 Torr CO2
Material pressed into pellets prior to analysis. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Short-range (reduced atmospheric pressure) & long-range (reduced CO2 atmosphere) single-pulse measurements. Ba, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr.
A.K. Knight, N.L. Scherbarth, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Characterization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for application to space exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 331-340
352.45 / not reported
Solid
6 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel
Standard steel samples probed in chamber filled with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), configured to give triple-pulse bursts. Paschen-Runge VUV spectrometer & PM detectors. C, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S & Si.
V. Sturm, L.  Peter and R. Noll. Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1275-1278.
231.60 / Fe (187.75)
Solid
50 ppm /  6.8%
Steel
Steel samples probed in Ar gas (atmospheric pressure). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrograph &ICCD. C, Cr, Ni & Si. Fe reference lines chosen to have similar energy levels and same degree of ionisation. Voigt line-fitting used.
C. Aragón, J.A. Aguilera and F. Penalba. Improvements in quantitative analysis of steel composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1259-1267.
231.60 / Fe (235.12)
Solid
1-10 ppm
Aluminum
To be added shortly
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
Not reported
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminum
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Echelle spectrometer with ICCD, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Zn.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
351.5 nm /
Al (266.04)
Solid
64 ppm
Steel
To be added shortly
J.A. Aguilera, C. Aragón and F. Penalba. Plasma shielding effect in laser ablation of metallic samples and its influence on LIBS analysis. Appl. Surf. Sci., 127-129, (1998), 309-314.
377.6
Solid
20 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
R. Wisbrun, I. Schechter, R. Niessner and K.L. Kompa. Detector for trace elemental analysis of solid environmental samples by laser plasma Spectroscopy. Anal. Chem., 66, (1994), 2964-2975.
PCR using multiple lines
Surface
0.27 µg/cm2 /
RSD not reported
Quartz filter
Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner with IPDA & Echelle with ICCD spectrometers. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
U. Panne, R.E. Neuhauser, M. Theisen, H. Fink and R. Niessner. Analysis of heavy metal aerosols on filters by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001),  839-850.
230.3 /
not applicable
Surface
270 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Aerosol on filter
Fibre-coupled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm), Czerny-Turner spectrometer with IPDA. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V.
R.E. Neuhauser, U. Panne and R. Niessner. Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS): a versatile tool for monitoring heavy rnetal aerosols. Anal. Chim. Acta, 392, (1999),  47-54.
230.3 / not applicable
Liquid
0.31 ppm /
Typically 12.5%
Water
Preconcentration of metal ions using ion-exchange membrane. Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ag, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Echelle spectrometer.
N.E. Schmidt and S.R. Goode. Analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of ion exchange membranes. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 370-374
353.0 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.01 ppm / RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
221-223, 229-231 /
not applicable
Liquid
18 ppm
Water
To be added shortly
L.M. Berman and P.J. Wolf. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquids: Aqueous solutions of nickel and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Appl. Spectrosc., 52, (1998), 438-443.
341.48, 352.45, 361.94
Liquid
36.4 ppm
Water
To be added shortly
L.M. Berman and P.J. Wolf. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquids: Aqueous solutions of nickel and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Appl. Spectrosc., 52, (1998),  438-443.
341.48, 352.45, 361.94