14
Si

28.086
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
1.87 ppm,
0.14 ppm
Aluminum alloy
To be added shortly
A. Freedman, F.J. lannarilli and J.C. Wormhoudt. Aluminum alloy analysis using microchip-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 60, (2005), 1076-1082.
288.1587
Solid
9 - 45% /
RSD 3 – 23%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
288.18 /
not applicable
Solid
235-319 ppm / 7-11%
Steel
Air or Ar purge gas. Long-pulse (AO-QS) Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). (i) 0.3 m spectrograph with IPDA (ii) 1 m polychromator & PMT to allow integration of high rep. rate signals. Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni & Si.
K.Y. Yamamoto, D.A. Cremers, L.E. Foster, M.P. Davies and R.D. Harris. Laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of solids using a long pulse (150 ns) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Appl. Spectrosc., 59, (2005), 1082-1097.
288.16 / Fe (322.58)
Solid
200 ppm
Steel
To be added shortly
C. Lopez-Moreno, K. Amponsah-Manager, B.W. Smith, I.B. Gornushkin, N. Omenetto, S. Palanco, J.J. Laserna and J.D. Winefordner. Quantitative analysis of low-alloy steel by microchip laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 20, (2005), 552-556.
288.16
Solid
74 ppm
Al alloy
To be added shortly
B. Sallé, J.-L. Lacour, E. Vors, P. Fichet, S. Maurice, D.A. Cremers and R.C. Wiens. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for Mars surface analysis: capabilities at stand-off distances and detection of chlorine and sulfur elements. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 1413-1422.
288.158
Solid
6.6 ppm
Steel
To be added shortly
M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
288
Solid
283.9 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
M.A. Ismail, H. Imam, A. Elhassan, W.T. Youniss and M.A. Harith. LIBS limit of detection and plasma parameters of some elements in two different metallic matrices. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 489-494.
288
Solid
14 ppm /
RSD not reported
Steel
Argon atmosphere, surface scale layers 0.1 – 1 mm thick, double-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Paschen-Runge spectrometer with PMT detectors, Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, S, Si.
V. Sturm, J. Vrenegor, R. Noll and M. Hemmerlin. Bulk analysis of steel samples with surface scale layers by enhanced laser ablation and LIBS analysis of C, P, S, Al, Cr, Cu. Mn and Mo. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 19, (2004), 451-456.
251.611 /
Fe (187.747)
Solid
141 ppm,
155 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
G.W. Rieger, M. Taschuk, Y.Y. Tsui and R. Fedosejevs. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for microanalysis using submillijoule UV laser pulses. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, (2002), 689-698.
288.2
Solid
400 ppm /
Typically <10%
Low-ash lignite
Commercial LIBS instrument. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), multiple 0.2 m spectrometers and gated, non-intesified CCD array detectors. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si.
B.L. Chadwick and D. Body. Development and commercial evaluation of laser-induced breakdown  spectroscopy chemical  analysis  technology in  the coal  power generation industry. Appl. Spectrosc.,  56, (2002), 70-74.
Not reported
Solid
5.3 ppm, 1.0 ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
288.158 /
C (247.857)
Solid
200 ppm /
RSD not reported
Lignite
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si. Baseline subtracted peak area used.
F.J. Wallis, B.L. Chadwick and R.J.S. Morrison. Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1231-1235.
288.16 /
not applicable
Solid
11 ppm / RSD not reported
Steel
Standard steel samples probed in chamber filled with Ar at atmospheric pressure. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), configured to give triple-pulse bursts. Paschen-Runge VUV spectrometer & PM detectors. C, Cr, Mn, Ni, P, S & Si.
V. Sturm, L.  Peter and R. Noll. Steel analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry in the vacuum ultraviolet. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1275-1278.
288.16 / Fe (187.75)
Solid
80 ppm
Steel
Steel samples probed in Ar gas (atmospheric pressure). Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrograph &ICCD. C, Cr, Ni & Si. Fe reference lines chosen to have similar energy levels and same degree of ionisation. Voigt line-fitting used.
C. Aragón, J.A. Aguilera and F. Penalba. Improvements in quantitative analysis of steel composition by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1259-1267.
288.16 / Fe (293.78)
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminum
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Echelle spectrometer with ICCD, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Zn.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
Si line not reported /
Al (266.04)
Solid
1190 ppm / 9.1%
Steel under water
Steel samples placed under water in sampling container with circulating & filtered water. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) with double-pulse facility. 0.5 m spectrograph & IPDA. Time-resolved images recorded using AOTF & ICCD. Cr, Cu, Mn & Si.
A.E. Pichahchy, D.A. Cremers and M.J. Ferris. Detection of metals underwater using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 52, (1997), 25-39.
288.16 / Fe (281.33)
Solid
600 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
L. Paksy, B. Német, A. Lengyel, L. Kozma and J. Czekkel. Production control of metal alloys by laser spectroscopy of the molten metals. Part 1. Preliminary investigations. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 51, (1996), 279-290.
288.158
Solid
600 ppm
Iron
To be added shortly
L. Paksy, B. Német, A. Lengyel, L. Kozma and J. Czekkel. Production control of metal alloys by laser spectroscopy of the molten metals. Part 1. Preliminary investigations. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 51, (1996), 279-290.
288.158
Solid
14 ppm
Al alloy
To be added shortly
M. Sabsabi and P. Cielo. Quantitative analysis of aluminum alloys by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and plasma characterization. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 499-507.
251.6
Solid
1500 ppm /
2 – 25%
SiO in Fe ore
Excimer laser (λ not stated). Si, Al, Ca, Ti, Mg.
K. Grant, G.L. Paul and J.A. O'Neill. Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 45, (1991), 701-705.
390.55 /
Fe (389.56)
Liquid
455
To be added shortly
D.C.S. Beddows, O  Samek, M. Liska and H.H. Telle. Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of samples submerged in water using a single fibre light delivery system. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 1461-1471.
288.16
Liquid
0.01 ppm / RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
288.16, 251-253 /
not applicable