11
Na

22.990
No spectrum
currently
available
No photo
currently
available

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
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Solids analysis references
No surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
Gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
70 – 600 ppm /
11 – 35%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
588.97 /
not applicable
Solid
30 ppm /
Typically <10%
Low-ash lignite
Commercial LIBS instrument. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), multiple 0.2 m spectrometers and gated, non-intesified CCD array detectors. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si.
B.L. Chadwick and D. Body. Development and commercial evaluation of laser-induced breakdown  spectroscopy chemical  analysis  technology in  the coal  power generation industry. Appl. Spectrosc.,  56, (2002), 70-74.
Not reported
Solid
< 1ppm /
RSD not reported (error 5 – 10%)
Wood
Single-shot and 20-shot measurements. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Echelle spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Mg, Na, Pb, Si, Sn.
A. Uhl, K. Loebe and L. Kreuchwig Fast analysis of wood preservers using laser
Induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001), 795-806.
588.995 & 330.232 /
C (247.857)
Solid
70 ppm /
RSD not reported
Lignite
Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.25 m spectrometer & ICCD camera. Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Si. Baseline subtracted peak area used.
F.J. Wallis, B.L. Chadwick and R.J.S. Morrison. Analysis of lignite using laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 54, (2000), 1231-1235.
589.00 & 589.59 /
not applicable
Solid
Undetermined
PuO2  
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ga, In, Li, Mn, Sr, V.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, - LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
589.5923  /
not applicable
Solid
Undetermined
UO2
Nuclear fuel pellets. Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr, Tl.
(Ca, Cd, Co, Na, Zn – LOD not determined)
P. Fichet, P. Mauchien and C. Moulin. Determination of impurities in uranium and plutonium dioxides by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1111-1117.
589.5923 /
not applicable
Solid
14 ppm, 18 ppm /
RSD not reported
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa. Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 1067-1072.
589.0 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.0004 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
ArF laser (193 nm), efficient plasma formation due to resonant absorption in water. 0.5 m spectrograph & ICCD. Ba, Ca, Na & Pb.
K.M. Lo and N.H. Cheung (2002). ArF laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for part- per-billion analysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions. Appl. Spectrosc., 56, 682-688.
589.0 / not applicable
Liquid
2.5 ppm
Water
To be added shortly
B. Charfi and M.A. Harith. Panoramic laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of water. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 1141-1153.
588.99
Liquid
2 ppm
Water
To be added shortly
B. Charfi and M.A. Harith. Panoramic laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of water. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 1141-1153.
588.99
Liquid
0.6 mg/l
(0.3 pg) /
RSD not reported
Water
Microdroplets generated by electrospray ionisation needle. Nd:YAG Laser (532, 355 & 266 nm). Na, K, Al. PMT detector.
J.-S. Huang, C.-B. Ke, L.S. Huang and K.C. Lin. The correlation between ion production and emission intensity in the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of liquid droplets. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 57, (2002), 35-48.
588.99 /
not reported
Liquid
2 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water ice
TEA-CO2 laser (9 – 11 µm) & Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). Al, Na. MCA with IPDA detector.
J.O. Caceres, J.T. Lopez, H.H. Telle and A.G. Urena. Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 831-838.
588.99 /
background ref. signal
Liquid
0.08 ppm /
Typically 2%
Water
Various experimental configurations incl. water jet. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Tc, U
O. Samek, D.C.S. Beddows, J. Kaiser, S.V. Kukhlevsky, M. Liska, H.H. Telle and J. Young. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to in situ analysis of liquid samples. Opt. Eng., 39, (2000), 2248-2262.
588.99 /
Hα, Li (λ?)
Liquid
0.0075 ppm / RSD not reported
Water
Metal salts dissolved in ultra-pure water. Dye laser (500 nm). 0.275 m polychromator & IPDA. Ba, Ca, Cd, Li, Na & Pb.
R. Knopp, F.J. Scherbaum and J.I. Kim. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) as an analytical tool for the detection of metal ions in aqueous solution. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem., 355, (1996), 16-20.
589.3 / not applicable
Liquid
2.2 ppm /
RSD not reported
Water
Isolated droplet sample introduction system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Al. PMT detector.
H.A. Archontaki and  S.R.  Crouch Evaluation  of an  isolated droplet  sample introduction system for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 42, (1988), 741-746.
589.00 /
not applicable
Liquid
0.014 ppm /
4 – 8%
Water,
Organic solvents
RSS (single pulse) & RSP (double pulse). Plasma formed within the liquid. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al. PMT detector.
D.A. Cremers, L.J. Radziemski and T.R. Loree. Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark. Appl. Spectrosc,. 38, (1984), 721-729.
589.00 /
not applicable
Gas/aerosol
100 fg
Aerosol
To be added shortly
J.D. Hybl, G.A. Lithgow and S.G. Buckley. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detection and classification of biological aerosols. Appl. Spectrosc., 57, (2003), 1207-1215.
589.0
Gas/aerosol
3.3 fg / RSD not reported
Particle in air
PM10-filtered ambient air sampling system. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), 0.275 m spectrometer & ICCD array. Ca, Mg & Na.
J.E. Carranza, B.T. Fisher, G.D. Yoder and D.W. Hahn. On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 56, (2001), 851-864.
589.00, 589.59 / not applicable
Gas/aerosol
5.2 ng
To be added shortly
D.A. Cremers, F.L. Archuleta and R.J. Martinez. Evaluation of the continuous optical discharge for spectrochemical analysis. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 40, (1985), 665-679.
589.00
Gas/Aerosol
0.006 ppm /
RSD not reported
Air / Aerosol
Air atmosphere at 100 – 760 Torr, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), PMT detector & gated PDA detector.  Be, Na, P, As, Hg.
L.J. Radziemski, T.R. Loree, D.A. Cremers and N.M. Hoffman. Time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of aerosols. Anal. Chem., 55, (1983), 246-1252.
588.9 /
not applicable