22
Ti

47.867
Titanium sample under analysis

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References ordered by physical form of material analysed
GO TO:
Solids analysis references
Surface analysis references
Liquids analysis references
No gases/aerosols analysis references

PHYSICAL
FORM OF
MATERIAL
LOD /
RSD
MATRIX
COMMENTS
REFERENCE
ANALYTE /
MATRIX LINES
λ (nm)
Solid
0.1 – 0.24 % /
RSD 33 – 44%
Soil
7 Torr CO2 atmosphere, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), Ocean Optics HR2000 spectrometers & Echelle spectrometer with ICCD camera, sample range ~15 cm (in-situ) & ~5.3 m (stand-off). Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr, Ti.
B. Sallé, D.A. Cremers, S. Maurice, R.C. Wiens and P. Fichet. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy
analyses of geological samples on Mars missions. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  60, (2005), 805-815.
398.92 /
not applicable
Solid
3 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
323.5
Solid
4 ppm
Al
To be added shortly
C. Gautier, P. Fichet, D. Menuta, J.-L. Lacour, D. L'Hermite and J. Dubessy. Study of the double-pulse setup with an orthogonal beam geometry for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 59, (2004), 975-986.
323.5
Solid
48 ppm
Soil
To be added shortly
V. Lazic, R. Barbini, F. Colao, R. Fantoni and A. Palucci. Self-absorption model in quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on soils and sediments. Spectrochim. Acta Part B,  56, (2001),  807-820.
351.9
Solid
1-10 ppm /
RSD not reported
Aluminum
Single-shot experiments. Ar gas atmosphere at atmospheric and reduced pressures. Echelle spectrometer with ICCD, Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, Zn.
H.E. Bauer, F. Leis and K. Niemax. Laser induced breakdown spectrometry with an echelle spectrometer and intensified charge coupled device detection. Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 53, (1998), 1815-1825.
334.9 nm /
Al (266.04)
Solid
410 ppm,
350 ppm /
RSD not reported
Glass
Air atmosphere at 1 and 5 Torr. TEA-CO2 laser (10.6 µm) & XeCl excimer laser (308 nm). Li, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Zn, Zr, Ba.
H. Kurniawan, S. Nakajima, J.E. Batubara, M. Marpaung, M. Okamoto and K. Kagawa. Laser-induced wave plasma in glass and its application to elemental analysis. Appl. Spectrosc., 49, (1995), 1067-1072.
365.3 /
not applicable
Solid
230 ppm /
2 – 25%
TiO2  in Fe ore
Excimer laser (λ not stated). Si, Al, Ca, Ti, Mg.
K. Grant, G.L. Paul and J.A. O'Neill. Quantitative elemental analysis of iron ore by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 45, (1991), 701-705.
498.17 /
Fe (389.56)
Surface
1100 ng/cm2 / RSD not reported
Solution on Al
Dried spots of different concentration solutions. Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser, Czerny-Turner spectrograph with ICCD. Create a ‘microline’ spark (via  cylindrical lens), allowing 2D analysis. Ba, Mo, Sr, Ti
K.T. Rodolfa and D.A. Cremers. Capabilities of surface composition analysis using a long laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spark. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 367-375.
398.2  / Al (396.2)
Liquid
111 ppm and 520 ppm / RSD not reported
Ice/10% soil
Samples formed by mixing soils with deionised water and then freezing. 7 Torr CO2 atmosphere. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Long range measurements (4 & 6.5 m), echellette spectrograph & ICCD or 0.25 m grating spectrograph with ICCD. Ba, Li, Mn, Sr, Ti.
Z.A. Arp, D.A. Cremers, R.C. Wiens, D.M. Wayne, B. Sallé and S. Maurice. Analysis of water ice and water/ice soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration. Appl. Spectrosc., 58, (2004), 897-909.
398.2 / not applicable
Liquid
0.1 ppm / RSD not reported
Liquid evaporated on graphite
Ar gas atmosphere at 76 Torr. Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb.
R.L. Van der Wal, T.M. Ticich, J.R. West and P.A. Householder. Trace metal detection by laser-induced breakdown Spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc., 53, (1999), 1226-1236.
323.4, 334-339 / not applicable